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Welcome! At Bluestem Farm we grow high quality, diverse, local ecotype native plants and seeds, and draw on more than 30 years of ecological restoration experience to ensure that you get appropriate plants for your conditions. We custom propagate most species including orchids and rare plants. We believe in reducing our ecological footprint, and grow and sell plants that can help you reduce yours. We sell our plants at the Dane County Farmers’ Market and by appointment on the farm. We are not a mail order business. Consulting services include biological surveys, site evaluation, and seed mix design.

We chose the name Bluestem Farm to honor four bunches of little bluestem that survived on what had been hard-grazed pasture prior to our acquiring the farm. We started restoration work shortly after purchasing the land in 1988. First we concentrated on restoring the prairie and oak savanna community and later put our energy into wetland restoration. We are fortunate to also have a mature red oak and maple woodland, and stream and riparian habitats. Such diversity is common in the Baraboo Hills and has given us a breadth of experience that few other nurseries have. Observing and working with the plants in the nursery as well as in their natural habitat gives us valuable insights into the requirements of those plants. Scott has worked with several public and private organizations in ecological restoration since 1979. He has been fortunate to study the progress of these projects for over thirty years!

Our primary business is propagating wildflowers and other plants native to south-central Wisconsin, including hardy orchids. We start most species from seed, but we propagate a few species by cuttings or division if seed propagation is impractical. Our pot-grown plants are less likely to suffer from transplant shock than bare-root plants since the roots are undisturbed. All of our orchids are started in our laboratory since their seeds have specialized germination requirements. For more information on the orchids, see the Orchid Conservation Coalition website at http://www.orchidconservationcoalition.org/pr/bluestem.html. Below is a list of native plants which we grow, along with a brief description of the sun and soil preferences of each plant.  Not all are available at any given time, as we are a small nursery and unable to stockpile plants. Most plants are in 8.4 oz.(250 ml), 13 oz.(395 ml) or 1 qt. (.946 liter) pots, a few are plugs or are in larger pots. We grow domestic fruiting plants for edible landscaping, as well. Apples and pears are available bare root in the spring as either bench grafts or year-old established graftlings. We have potted grapes, blueberries, bush cherries, kiwis and currants from spring through fall. We are happy to do custom propagation of plants.

We are not a mail order business. We sell at the Dane County Farmers’ Market http://www.dcfm.org in Madison - our stall is on Carroll St. between State St. and West Washington - and on the farm. We expect to be open on the farm many Sundays in May and June; call for hours. Other days we sell at the farm by appointment.

In addition to native plants and habitat restoration, we grow much of our own food. Initially we wanted organic fruit production for our own use, but what started out as a hobby has now become a collection of over a hundred varieties of apples, pears, cherries, plums, and grapes. These include both heirlooms and some new varieties bred for cold climates and disease resistance. We eat the food that we grow, so we want it to be the finest possible. We avoid using poisons on our farm and use natural fertilizers (composts, mulches, manures, seaweed and rock powders) in the fields, although the potted perennials do receive some synthetic slow release fertilizer.

As part of living lightly on the land, we:

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Wild Plum is an easy to grow small tree. It blooms young--when it's as small as 4 feet tall--and blooms very early, usually around the first week of May. The flowers are incredibly fragrant and well frequented by solitary bees. Wild plums are happy in either full sun or partial (filtered) shade, and in most soils as long as they aren't dry. On top of that they produce plums which make an awesome syrup or jam. The skin of the fruit is sharp tasting, but the flesh when fully ripe is as sweet as any other plum. They can eventually reach 10 to 15 feet tall. Wild plum has one potential problem as a yard tree: it sends up lots of sprouts from the roots, and will turn into a thicket if they are not mowed off.
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Three Easy Species. These three species are very easy to grow rain or butterfly garden plants. All of them grow in full sun on intermediate to moist soils; Sweet Black-Eyed Susan can also grow in light shade. Prairie Blazing Star (Liatris pycnostachya, on the left) is a tall grower that blooms in late July or early August. The lavender flower spikes are full of nectar and pollen for butterflies. Some of the domestic blazing stars have been bred for reduced amounts of nectar; this negates their value to pollinators. Sweet Black-Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia subtomentosa, upper right) is another tall grower, sometimes reaching five feet but usually shorter. It, too, is attractive to butterflies. The flowers look similar to the more common Black-Eyed Susans (Common Black-Eyed Susan, R. hirta and Showy Black-Eyed Susan, R. fulgida), but this one is taller and bushier, blooms slightly later in the summer, and is more reliably perennial. Its' stems are rough, but not hairy-prickly like the Common Black-Eyed Susan. Wisconsin is outside of the historic range of Showy Black-Eyed Susan. Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata, lower right) blooms in late June or early July. In addition to being attractive, the flowers are very fragrant. It is a good nectar source for all sorts of pollinators. If you want to raise monarch butterflies you should know that it is one of the preferred milkweeds for the larvae to feed on. Swamp milkweed needs moist soils; you can get one year of blooming on average soils, but it is only likely to persist in wetter spots. The extra moisture in a rain garden may be just the thing to keep it going.
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White Penstemon lives fast and dies young, but it leaves behind a generous supply of seedlings.  It tolerates a range of soils in full sun to light shade, and attracts hummingbirds as well as other pollinators.   Prefers not to have a lot of grassy competition.

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This picture shows a Giant Swallowtail on the New England Aster outside our front door, with the inset showing two Monarchs on a different day. Around here, New England Asters are major nectar sources for Monarch butterflies while they are on migration in late August and September; it takes more than just milkweed to keep the Monarchs going. They are popular with all of the butterflies that fly in the fall, and are important for butterfly gardens. In bloom for a long time, often starting in August and continuing into October.  I occasionally see a quicksilver-fast hummingbird visiting them. The plants are large (getting up to four feet tall) and vigorous growers; their tendency to self-seed can be an issue although you may not object while they are blooming! They do need full sun and intermediate to moist soil; too much drought will remove them from your garden. All of the asters are important for butterflies and bees that are preparing for winter, but on our farm I see the greatest density and diversity of visitors on the New England Asters.

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Grass pink orchid (Calopogon tuberosus). This native orchid is very hardy and easy to cultivate. It likes moist soil in full to part sun without heavy competition and will tolerate poor soil, either acidic or alkaline. Seedlings usually bloom their third year.
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Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) is a favorite with all sorts of pollinators. Beauty is more than skin deep; the plants may sometimes look a bit ragged to us, but the ones who really know flowers seem to find them infinitely attractive. Their many tubular lavender flowers are generous producers of nectar that draws in hummingbirds, hawk moths, bumble- and honey-bees, and many sorts of butterflies. Bergamot is easy to grow, not being particular about what kind of soil it has or whether it has full sun or partial shade. It also is vigorous without taking over the garden.   If you want to watch bumblebees, bergamot is one of the plants that you need in your garden.
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Wild Geranium (Geranium maculatum). We sell plants of prairies, wetlands, and woodlands. Wild Geranium is a colorful spring bloomer for shaded areas which can also grow in the open. It's also known as Crane'sbill for the shape of  its' seed pod.
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Juneberry (Amelanchier laevis). Juneberry is a small tree growing up to 30 feet tall. It is adaptable as to soil type, although the only mature trees growing wild on our farm are in moist to wet soil. We do have two that we planted near the greenhouses on shallow mesic (intermediate moisture) soil that are both doing great.  In late April or May Juneberries are covered with showy white flowers which develop into blueberry shaped reddish fruit in mid- to late June. They are tasty and productive, although the birds will attempt to harvest them all before you get to them. In fall the leaves turn glowing yellow.
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Shooting Star (Dodecatheon meadia). Many older folks remember shooting stars on the farms where they grew up. It is declining in abundance in the wild; it is now found mostly in savannas and open woodlands, but formerly was common in prairies throughout southern Wisconsin. It is usually in bloom for Mother’s Day. The flowers are incredibly fragrant. It is easy to grow, although slow to reach maturity.  A plant may be four or more years old before you see flowers.  Once it reaches flowering size it is likely to live many years and bloom most of those years unless seriously set back by a late spring burn or repeatedly being eaten by deer.  It germinates well and should be included in more seed mixes.


Species List   (or print from PDF file)

I've put brief descriptions of their growing requirements.  One good place to find more information on the native plants on this list is the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point herbarium web page, where there are pictures and range maps as well as more in-depth descriptions.

FORBS Sauk, Dane, Columbia, and/or Iowa County ecotypes Mesic means medium moisture

Anemone patens Pasqueflower Full Sun, dry calcareous soil

Antennaria neglecta Pussytoes Sun, poor dry to mesic soil

Antennaria plantaginifolia Pussytoes Sun to partial shade, mesic soil

Aquilegia canadensis Wild Columbine Shade, mesic to dry soil

Aralia racemosa  Spikenard   Shade, rich woods soil

Asarum canadense Wild Ginger Shade, rich mesic soil

Asclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed Sun, rich moist soils

Asclepias syriaca Common Milkweed Sun, most soils

Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly Weed Sun, sandy mesic to dry soils

Aster azureus Azure (Sky Blue) Aster Sun to light shade, mesic to dry soils

Aster laevis Smooth Aster Sun to light shade, mesic to dry soils

Aster linariifolius Stiff Aster Sun to light shade, well-drained poor soils

Aster novae-angliae New England Aster Sun, rich moist to mesic soils

Aster prenanthoides Crooked Stemmed Aster Sun to light shade, moist to wet soil

Aster sagittifolius Arrow-Leaved Aster Partial sun, mesic soils

Aster sericeus Silky Aster Full sun, dry soil

Astragalus canadensis Canada Milk Vetch Full to partial sun, dry to mesic sandy and loamy soils

Baptisia leucantha White Wild Indigo Sun to light shade, mesic to moist soils

          Baptisia leucophaea Cream Wild Indigo Sun, dry to mesic soils

Campanula rotundifolia Harebell Sun to partial shade, wet-mesic to dry soils

Cassia hebecarpa  Wild Senna   Moist soil in full sun to light shade

Chelone glabra Turtlehead Sun, rich mesic to wet soils

Coreopsis palmata Prairie Coreopsis Sun to light shade, mesic to dry soils 

Dodecatheon meadia Shooting Star Sun to shade, dry to moist soils

Epilobium angustifolium Fireweed Sun, moist soils

Eryngium yuccifolium Rattlesnake Master Sun, mesic to wet-mesic soils

Eupatorium maculatum Wetland Joe-Pye Sun, moist soils

Eupatorium purpureum Woodland Joe-Pye Partial sun, mesic to moist soils

Fragaria vesca Woodland Wild Strawberry Shade to sun, rich mesic soil

Fragaria virginiana Common Wild Strawberry Sun or partial shade, dry to moist soils

Galium boreale Northern Bedstraw Sun, mesic to moist soils

Gentiana andrewsii  Bottle Gentian  Sun to light shade, moist soil

Gentiana flavida  Cream Gentian   Sun, mesic soil

Gentiana puberula  Downy Gentian   Full sun, mesic to dry soils

Geranium maculatum Wild Geranium Light shade, intermediate moisture

Geum triflorum Prairie Smoke Sun, dry to moist soils

Helenium autumnale Helenium Sun, moist soils

Helianthus occcidentalis Western Sunflower Sun to light shade, dry to mesic soils

Heliopsis helianthoides Ox-Eye Sun to partial shade, mesic to moist soils

Heuchera richardsonii Prairie Alum Root Sun to partial shade, dry to moist soils

Hypericum pyramidatum Great St. John’s-wort Sun to light shade, moist soils custom propagation only

Hypoxis hirsuta Yellow Star Grass Sun to light shade, dry to moist soils

Iris virginica shrevei Wild Iris Sun, moist to very wet soils

Krigia biflora  Wild Cynthia (False Dandelion) Partial shade to sun, dry to moist soils

Lespedeza capitata Round-Headed Bush-Clover Sun to partial shade, most soil conditions 

Liatris aspera Rough Blazing Star Sun to light shade, wet-mesic to dry soils

Liatris cylindracea Dwarf Blazing Star Sun, dry sandy or limestone soils

Liatris pycnostachya Prairie Blazing Star Sun, mesic to moist soils

Lilium philadelphicum Wood Lily Sun, dry to rich mesic soils

Liparis loeselii Loesel's Twayblade Sun to partial shade, moist to mesic soils

Lobelia siphilitica Great Blue Lobelia Sun to light shade, mesic to wet soils

Lupinus perennis Lupine   Sun to light shade, sandy dry soils

Lysimachia lanceolata Savanna Loosestrife Sun to light shade, Dry to mesic soil

Maianthemum canadense Canada Mayflower Light shade, mesic to moist soils

Mimulus ringens Monkey Flower Sun, moist soils

Mitella diphylla Miterwort Partial to full shade, rich mesic soils

Monarda fistulosa Bergamot Sun to light shade, most soils

Oenothera perennis Sundrops Sun, moist soils

Pedicularis canadensis Wood Betony Sun to shade, dry to moist soils

Penstemon pallidus White Penstemon Sun to light shade, mesic to dry soils

Petalostemum candidum White Prairie Clover Full sun, dry to mesic soil

Petalostemum purpureum Purple Prairie Clover Sun, dry to mesic soils

Phlox pilosa Downy (Prairie) Phlox Sun to light shade, dry to wet-mesic soils

Polemonium reptans Jacob’s Ladder Sun to shade, moist soils

Polygonatum biflorum Solomon’s Seal Shade, rich mesic soils

Potentilla arguta Prairie Cinquefoil Sun, dry to mesic soils

Pycnanthemum virginianum Mountain Mint Sun, dry to moist soils

Ratibida pinnata Yellow Coneflower Sun, dry to wet soils

Rudbeckia laciniata Wild Golden Glow Sun to light shade, moist soils Custom propagation only

Rudbeckia subtomentosa Sweet Black-Eyed Susan Sun to light shade, mesic to moist soils

Silphium laciniatum Compass Plant Sun, mesic soil

Silphium terebinthinaceum Prairie Dock Sun, moist soil

Sisyrinchium campestre Blue-Eyed Grass Sun to light shade, dry to mesic soil

Smilacina racemosa False Solomon’s Seal Shade, rich mesic soil

Smilacina stellata Starry False Solomon’s Seal Sun to partial shade, dry to mesic sandy soil

Solidago flexicaulis Zigzag Goldenrod Partial shade, rich mesic soil

Solidago nemoralis Old-Field Goldenrod Sun, dry soils

Solidago patula Swamp Goldenrod Sun to light shade, moist soils  Custom Propagation only

Solidago speciosa Showy Goldenrod Sun to light shade, mesic to dry soils

Spiranthes cernua Nodding Ladies’ Tresses Sun, moist soils

Thalictrum dasycarpum Purple Meadow Rue Sun, moist soils

Thalictrum dioicum Early Meadow Rue Shade to partial shade, rich mesic soils

Tradescantia ohiensis Spiderwort Sun to light shade, dry to moist soils

Vernonia fasciculata Ironweed Full Sun, moist soils

Veronicastrum virginicum Culver’s Root Sun to partial shade, moist to mesic soils

Viola sagittata  Arrow Leaved Violet   Full sun, moist soil

Zizia aurea Golden Alexanders Sun to light shade, mesic to moist soils



OTHER FORBS From outside of the Sauk, Columbia, Dane and Iowa County area

Allium cernuum Nodding Wild Onion Sun, mesic soil

Calopogon tuberosus Grass Pink Orchid Sun, moist soil

Dodecatheon amethystinum Amethyst Shooting Star Shade, mesic to moist soil

Echinacea pallida Pale Purple Coneflower Sun, mesic soil

Penstemon digitalis Foxglove Penstemon Partial shade to sun, dry to mesic soil

Silene stellata Starry Campion Partial shade, mesic soil

GRASSES, SEDGES AND RUSHES Sauk, Columbia, Dane, and Iowa Co. ecotypes.

Andropogon gerardi Big Bluestem Full Sun, dry to moist soil

Andropogon scoparius Little Bluestem Sun, mesic to dry soil

Bouteloua curtipendula Side Oats Grama Sun, calcareous mesic to dry soil

Calamagrostis canadensis Canada Bluejoint Grass Full Sun, moist to wet soil

Carex crinita Fringed Sedge Sun to light shade, moist soil

Carex davisii Davis’ Sedge Shade, moist soil

Carex pallescens Pale Sedge Sun, most soils

Carex pensylvanica Penn Sedge Sun to light shade, mesic to dry soil

Carex radiata Starry Sedge Deciduous shade, moist soil

Carex vulpinoidea Fox Sedge Full sun, moist soil

Elymus canadensis Canada Wild Rye Sun, most soils. Short lived

Elymus riparius Riverbank Wild-Rye Light shade to full canopy, moist to wet soils custom propagation only

Elymus villosus Silky Wild Rye Partial shade, mesic soils  custom propagation only

HierocloŽ odorata Sweet Grass Sun, moist to wet soils

Koeleria cristata Junegrass Sun, dry soil

Luzula acuminata Hairy Wood Rush Shade, mesic to dry soil

Sorghastrum nutans Indian Grass Sun, most soils

Spartina pectinata Prairie Cord Grass Sun, moist to wet soils

Sporobolus heterolepis Prairie Dropseed Sun, moist to dry soils

Stipa spartea  Needlegrass  Full sun, mesic to dry soils

WOODY PLANTS Sauk, Columbia, Dane, and Iowa Co. ecotypes

Acer rubrum Red Maple Shade tolerant tree, mesic to wet soils

Acer saccharum Sugar Maple Shade tolerant tree, mesic to dry-mesic soil

Amelanchier laevis Juneberry Small tree, sun to light shade most soils

Amorpha canescens Leadplant Low growing prairie shrub, dry to mesic soil

Amorpha fruticosa Indigo Bush 10 foot wetland shrub; sun and moist soil

Carpinus caroliniana Musclewood Shade to sun small multi-stemmed tree, moist soils

Carya ovata Shagbark Hickory Slow growing tree, full sun and dry to mesic soil

Ceanothus americanus  New Jersey Tea   Small shrub, full to partial sun, mesic to dry soils

Celtis occidentalis Hackberry Small to medium tree, open shade to sun, mesic to moist soil

Clematis virginiana Wild Clematis Climbing or ground covering vine, moist soil Custom propagation only

          Cornus alternifolia Pagoda Dogwood Small woodland tree; mesic to moist soil

       Cornus amomum  Silky Dogwood  Many-stemmed bush;  wet to mesic soils

          Cornus stolonifera   Red-Osier Dogwood   Spreading shrub with bright red winter color; full sun, moist soils

       Corylus americanus  Hazelnut  Large shrub; intermediate to moist soils, full sun to light shade

Ostrya virginiana Ironwood Woodland tree; most soils

Pinus banksiana Jack Pine Small tree. Full sun, sandy dry soil

Pinus strobus  White Pine  Large tree.  Full sun, most soils

Prunus americana Wild Plum Small suckering tree; sun to partial shade, dry to damp soils

Quercus macrocarpa Bur Oak Large tree, Full sun and most soils

Quercus rubra Red Oak Large tree, full sun to light shade; mesic soils

Ribes americanum American Black Currant Small bush, sun to light shade; moist soils Custom prop. only

Sambucus canadensis Elderberry Suckering shrub. Full sun and moist soil are preferred

Tilia americana  Basswood   Large Tree, Sun to light shade, rich mesic to moist soil




Domestic Fruiting Plants for Edible Landscaping

Apples — We grow many non-patented varieties, on dwarfing or full sized rootstocks. Varieties include Baraboo Beauty, Blue Hill,  Chestnut Crab, Connell Red, Cortland,  Gravenstein,  Honeygold,  Muff's Orange Winter,  Prairie Spy, old-style Winesap, Wolf River, and Zabergau Reinette. Mostly sold bare-root in the spring.

Pears — Seckel (“sugar pears”) on OHxF97 (nearly full-sized) rootstocks. A few other varieties are available custom propagated.

Grape vines — We are trialing many Swenson hybrids as well as other Wisconsin hardy varieties. Table, juice, and wine grapes in blue, white, and red. Some of the varieties are: Petite Jewel, Somerset Seedless, Trollhaugen, Vanessa and Mars seedless; Bluebell, Brianna, Edelweiss, Swenson Red and Worden juice or seeded table; and La Crosse, Marechal Foch, Sabrevois, and St. Pepin wine grapes. We can make recommendations on what might work well for you.  For growing directions, click here.

Arctic Beauty hardy Kiwis — Winter hardy but spring frost sensitive, their planting site must be chosen with care.  Krupnopladnaya large-fruited female, and attractive male pollinator.  Limited supplies.

Black Currants — White pine blister rust resistant varieties.

Blueberries — Wild-type lowbush varieties.

Bush Cherries— Carmine Jewel, the new variety from the U of Sask. Breeding program.  Pie-type cherries on 6 foot tall bushes.

Well Behaved Plants for Gardens and Landscaping

Amorpha canescens Leadplant

Anemone patens Pasqueflower

Aquilegia canadensis Columbine

Asclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly Weed

Aster linariifolius Stiff Aster

Aster sericeus Silky Aster

Baptisia, either species Wild Indigo

Campanula rotundifolia Harebell

Dodecatheon amethystinum Amethyst Shooting Star

Dodecatheon meadia Shooting Star

Echinacea pallida Pale Purple Coneflower

Eryngium yuccifolium Rattlesnake Master

Fragaria either species Wild Strawberry

Geum triflorum Prairie Smoke

Heuchera richardsonii Prairie Alum Root

Hypoxis hirsuta Yellow Star Grass

Liatris aspera Rough Blazing Star

Liatris cylindracea Dwarf Blazing Star

Liatris pycnostacha Prairie Blazing Star

Lilium philadelphicum Wood Lily

Mitella diphylla Miterwort

Oenothera perennis Sundrops

Petalostemum candidum White Prairie Clover

Petalostemum purpureum Purple Prairie Clover

Phlox pilosa Downy (Prairie) Phlox

Polemonium reptans Jacob’s Ladder

Potentilla arguta Prairie Cinquefoil

Rudbeckia subtomentosa Sweet Black-Eyed Susan

Silphium laciniatum Compass Plant

Silphium terebinthinaceum Prairie Dock

Sisyrinchium campestre Blue Eyed Grass

Solidago rigida Stiff Goldenrod

Solidago speciosa Showy Goldenrod

Thalictrum dasycarpum Purple Meadow Rue

Thalictrum dioicum Early Meadow Rue

Veronicastrum virginicum Culver’s Root

Zizia aptera  Heart-leaved Golden Alexanders

Zizia aurea Golden Alexanders

Andropogon scoparius Little Bluestem

Carex davisii Davis’ Sedge

Carex radiata Starry Sedge

Carex vulpinoidea Fox Sedge

Sporobolus heterolepis Prairie Dropseed

Acer rubrum or saccharum Native maples

Amelanchier laevis Juneberry

Carpinus caroliniana Musclewood

Carya ovata Shagbark Hickory

Ceanothus americanus New Jersey Tea

Celtis occidentalis Hackberry

Cornus alternifolia Pagoda Dogwood

Cornus amomum (a.k.a. C. sericeus)  Silky Dogwood

Red, White and Bur Oaks




Aggressive Plants to be aware of

Many of these are fine in landscaping, as long as their tendencies are taken into account. Others are only suited for restoration work.

Anemone canadensis Canada Anemone Clonal. Roots must be contained.

Asarum canadense Wild Ginger Clonal--spreads slowly, but inexorably.

Asclepias syriaca Common Milkweed    Very clonal—but great food for Monarch caterpillars, and an excellent nectar source for hummingbirds, butterflies and bees.

Aster novae-angliae New England Aster   Valuable nectar plant, but aggressive self seeder.

Aster oblongifolius Savory-Leaved Aster    Clonal.

Aster prenanthoides Crooked Stemmed Aster    Another clonal aster, but less of an issue.

Aster puniceus Red-Stemmed Aster  Clonal, although unlikely to spread outside of wet areas.

Aster sagittifolius Arrow-Leaved Aster   In the absence of deer this may be an aggressive self-seeder.

Coreopsis palmata Prairie Coreopsis   Clonal. May or may not be a problem.

Fragaria vesca and virginiana Wild Strawberries   Spread vigorously, but seldom hard to control.

Galium boreale Northern Bedstraw   Seeder, clonal, and suppresses the growth of other plants.

Helenium autumnale   Helenium    Self-sows readily. Seedlings should be easy to control.

Helianthus occcidentalis Western Sunflower   Clonal, but other Helianthus species are far more aggressive

Heliopsis helianthoides Ox-Eye   Self seeds readily, and seedlings grow fast.

Iris shrevei Wild Iris    Clonal, but spreads fairly slowly.

Pedicularis canadensis Wood Betony    Clonal. May suppress other plants’ growth

Polygonatum biflorum Solomon’s Seal Clonal.

Silphium integrifolium Rosin Weed Self sows vigorously. Not recommended.

Silphium perfoliatum Cupplant Self sows vigorously. Not recommended.

Smilacina racemosa False Solomon’s Seal   Clonal. May be hard to contain.

Smilacina stellata Starry False Solomon’s Seal    Clonal. May be hard to contain.

Solidago flexicaulis Zigzag Goldenrod   Clonal. Usually stays small, but I’ve heard occasional reports of it spreading aggressively.

Solidago graminifolia Grass-Leaved Goldenrod   Clonal. Hard to contain. Not recommended.

Vernonia fasciculata Ironweed    Clonal. Extremely vigorous when soil is moist enough for the plant to be happy.

Andropogon gerardi Big Bluestem   Self-sows vigorously. May be hard to contain.

Calamagrostis canadensis Blue Joint Grass    Clonal. Not for gardens.

HierocloŽ odorata Sweet Grass    Clonal. Roots must be contained but might not spread to dry ground.

Sorghastrum nutans Indian Grass   Self-sows vigorously. May be hard to contain.

Spartina pectinata Prairie Cord Grass   Clonal. Only for restoration plantings.

Amorpha fruticosa Indigo Bush   Self-seeds aggressively.

Celastrus scandens Native Bittersweet   Sends up many sprouts from the roots.    All bittersweets are somewhat dicey in garden settings.

Clematis virginiana Wild Clematis (Virgin’s Bower)   Aggressive vine that roots wherever it touches the ground.

Corylus americana American Hazelnut     Many root sprouts.

Prunus americana Wild Plum Clonal. Sprouts can be contained with the lawn mower.

Rubus occidentalis    Black Raspberry Needs to be kept pruned.

Sambucus canadensis Elderberry    Sends up root sprouts--not for small spaces.


Rock Garden type plants

Anemone patens Pasqueflower
Antennaria neglecta
Pussytoes
Antennaria plantaginifolia
Pussytoes
Asters linariifolius or sericeus
Campanula rotundifolia
Harebell

Dodecatheon meadia Shooting Star
Dodecatheon amethystinum Amethyst Shooting Star
Geum triflorum Prairie Smoke
Heuchera richardsonii Prairie Alum Root
Hypoxis hirsuta Yellow Star Grass

Liatris cylindracea Dwarf Blazing Star
Mitella diphylla Miterwort
Oenothera perennis Sundrops
Penstemon pallidus White Penstemon
Phlox pilosa Downy (Prairie) Phlox

Potentilla arguta Prairie Cinquefoil
Sisyrinchium campestre Blue-Eyed Grass
Solidago nemoralis Old-Field Goldenrod
Solidago speciosa Showy Goldenrod
Thalictrum dioicum
Early Meadow Rue

Bouteloua curtipendula Side Oats Grama
Koeleria cristata
Junegrass



Butterfly Plants Good sources for larval food or nectar (nectar sources are highlighted)
         Asclepias incarnata, syriaca, or tuberosa Any milkweed is consumed by Monarch caterpillars

Antennaria Both species are consumed by the American Painted Lady caterpillars

Asters Pearl Crescent larva Aster novae-angliae (New England Aster) in particular is a superb nectar plant

Cassia hebecarpa Sleepy orange and cloudless sulfur larvae

Other legumes such as Amorpha (leadplant and indigo bush) and Lespedeza (bush clovers) are larval food for the showy Silver Spotted Skipper

Chelone glabra Baltimore larvae

Violets various fritillaries

Warm Season grasses Common Wood Nymph and various Skippers

Various other butterflies develop on Black cherry, Hackberry, Oaks, aspens, pines,  and willows.

Hops feed young Commas (“Hop Merchants”), Red Admirals, and Question Marks

Nettles (in addition to being good for us!) provide food for the caterpillars of  Red Admirals, Milbert's Tortoise Shells, Question Marks, and Commas

Bergamot, Pycnanthemum (Mountain Mint), Echinacea, and all Blazing stars, Rudbeckias, Eupatoriums, and goldenrods are superb nectar producers


Hummingbird Flowers

Aquilegia canadensis Wild Columbine

Asclepias species—all millkweeds

Aster species

Astragalus canadensis Canada Milk-Vetch

Baptisia species—the Wild Indigos

Epilobium angustifolium Fireweed

Heuchera richardsoni Alum Root

Liatris species—the Blazing Stars

Lilium species—Michigan and Wood Lilies

Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal Flower

Monarda fistulosa Bergamot

Pedicularis canadensis Wood Betony

Penstemon species

Silene virginica Fire Pink

Silphium laciniatum Compass Plant

And quite a few more!

Domestically,  Apple, Raspberry and currant flowers attract hummingbirds


Rain Garden Plants

Rain Garden plants have to be able to tolerate both dry periods and standing water, although an established rain garden shouldn’t have rainwater standing for more than a day or so following a storm. Most of these are plants that would be found in the wild on wet meadows or floodplains.

Flowers

Allium cernuum Nodding Wild Onion

Asclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed

Aster novae-angliae New England Aster

Aster prenanthoides Crooked Stemmed Aster

Astragalus canadensis  Canada Milk Vetch

Baptisia leucantha White Wild Indigo

Cacalia suaveolens Sweet Indian Plantain

Cassia hebecarpa Wild Senna

Chelone glabra Turtlehead

Dodecatheon meadia Shooting Star

Epilobium angustifolium Fireweed

Eupatorium maculatum Wetland Joe-Pye

Fragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry

Geranium maculatum Wild Geranium

Helenium autumnale  Helenium

Heliopsis helianthoides Ox-Eye

Heuchera richardsonii Prairie Alum Root

Hypericum pyramidatum Great St. John’s-wort

Iris virginica shrevei Wild Iris

Krigia biflora Cynthia (False Dandelion)

Liatris pycnostachya Prairie Blazing Star

Lilium philadelphicum Wood Lily

Liparis loeselii Loesel's Twayblade

Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal Flower

Lobelia siphilitica Great Blue Lobelia

Mimulus ringens Monkey Flower

Monarda fistulosa Bergamot

Oenothera perennis Sundrops

Phlox pilosa Downy (Prairie) Phlox

Polemonium reptans Jacob’s Ladder

Pycnanthemum virginianum Mountain Mint

Ratibida pinnata Yellow Coneflower

Rudbeckia laciniata Wild Golden Glow

Rudbeckia subtomentosa Sweet Black-Eyed Susan

Silphium terebinthinaceum Prairie Dock

Solidago rigida Stiff Goldenrod

Solidago speciosa Showy Goldenrod

Spiranthes cernua Nodding Ladies’ Tresses

Thalictrum dasycarpum Purple Meadow Rue

Tradescantia ohiensis Spiderwort

Vernonia fasciculata Ironweed

Veronicastrum virginicum Culver’s Root

Zizia aurea Golden Alexanders


Grasses and Grass-like Plants for the Rain Garden

Andropogon gerardi Big Bluestem

Carex crinita  Fringed Sedge

Carex vulpinoidea Fox Sedge

Elymus canadensis Canada Wild Rye

Elymus riparius Riverbank Wild-Rye

HierocloŽ odorata Sweet Grass

Sorghastrum nutans Indian Grass

Spartina pectinata Prairie Cord Grass

Sporobolus heterolepis Prairie Dropseed

Woody Plants

Amelanchier laevis Juneberry

Amorpha fruticosa Indigo Bush

Carpinus caroliniana Musclewood

Ribes americanum American Black Currant

Sambucus canadensis Black Elderberry




GROUND COVER PLANTS Because sometimes you want a solid stand of something low-growing

Anemone canadensis Canada Anemone

Antennaria neglecta Pussytoes

Asarum canadense Wild Ginger

Fragaria vesca Woodland Wild Strawberry

Fragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry

Galium boreale  Northern Bedstraw

Geum triflorum Prairie Smoke

Helianthus occidentalis Western Sunflower

Heuchera richardsonii Alum Root

Lysimachia lanceolata Savanna Loosestrife

Maianthemum canadense Canada Mayflower

Pedicularis canadensis Wood Betony

Carex pensylvanica Pennsylvania sedge

Vaccinium pensylvanicum Creeping Blueberry




Questions or comments? Please write to bluestem_farm(at)juno.com

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Bluestem Farm

S5920 Lehman Road -- Baraboo, WI 53913 -- (608) 356-0179

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